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Islamic Extremism in the United Kingdom: why, who and what

Written by:
Matthew Barnes, MA Candidate
IDC, Herzliya, Lauder School of Government
2009

Introduction

In 2007, Peter Clarke, the head of Scotland Yard’s Counter Terrorism Command, explained how in the nineties everyone thought extremists were only using the UK as a launching pad to the rest of the world and were ‘“pursuing agendas against foreign governments, and posed little or no threat to the UK.”’[1] It is difficult to say exactly when Britain itself became a target of Islamic fundamentalists, but that it is now in their sights is beyond doubt. The attacks in Britain, however, were not the beginning of this relationship with Islamic extremism and in fact, the two have a somewhat longer history together. The rapid spread of radical ideology in Britain, coupled with the increasing number of terrorist plots coming to light, paints a bleak picture of Britain’s domestic security in the future. The fact that the July 7th bombers in London and many of the subsequent plots intending attacks on British soil have been undertaken or planned by British Muslims draws our attention to the disturbing reality that the security services now face. The September 11th attacks on the World Trade Centre changed the world, but the 7/7 attacks were just as significant, because they were carried out by ‘home-grown’ terrorists and not by foreigners.  This is but one indication that the violent and intolerant ideology that is spreading among the nation’s Muslim youth is clearly catching many more than had been anticipated in its horribly distorted snare. This phenomenon is difficult for any government to counter, but even more so for a democratic one such as that of the United Kingdom.

According to a Pew Research Centre report released in 2006, a “higher proportion of British Muslims are radicalised than those in several other major western European nations…”[2] Why should Britain of all countries produce more radicalised young Muslims than other countries such as France, which boasts a far larger Muslim population, has ties to more Muslim countries and is home to a potentially larger pool of disaffected youths from which to recruit?  As will become evident throughout the course of this paper, there are a multitude of factors which contribute to Britain’s particular vulnerability to the spread of Islamic extremism which range from historical circumstances through to the unspoken agreement between the authorities and radicals whereby the radicals were given leave to stay in Britain so long as they kept their head down and cooperated with the security services. These vulnerabilities and circumstances led Britain to become what Omar Bakri Mohammad referred to as ‘“the capital of the Islamic world,”’[3] however, these issues would come to nothing, like in other countries, if not for the right people to take advantage of them.

The very specific nature of Britain and its Muslim communities have created a situation in which the scores of radicals who were laying low in Britain have become embedded amongst the most fertile recruiting ground they could hope for in a western democratic country. Radicals have but to stick their head in a local mosque or community centre and seek out the groups of disaffected youths who would be receptive to their poisonous seduction.  Young Muslims are being offered the chance to be part of something bigger than themselves, to have a purpose, and this can be very appealing to them, especially when it oozes from the mouths of charismatic leaders like Abu Hamza el-Masri, Omar Bakri Mohammad or Abu Qatada and the rest of their ilk. Discontent is nurtured, grievances are exaggerated and eventually a terrorist is born.

This paper aims to explain why Britain is suffering from the spread of Islamic extremism and also, who and what are responsible for spreading it. Furthermore, in examining the messages and views of these radicals, the author seeks to convey the actual ideologies behind their words. It is prudent to begin with the why before moving on to the who and the what.

Why Britain?

For a long time the British Government did not want to admit that it had a problem with radical Islam within its borders. However, it did not take so long for them to realise that this problem was of their own making. The disintegration of the British Empire after the end of the Second World War led many former subjects to move to the British Isles themselves and as such the 1950s saw the emergence of a sizeable expatriate Muslim community throughout Britain. Today it numbers around two million out of a total population of sixty million, just over three per cent.[4] Forty-six per cent of this two million are British born and it is a very young community with an average age of twenty-eight.[5] The history of Britain explains how its Muslim community came to be, but not how it arrived at such a warm embrace with Islamic extremism.  As is explained in a United States Air Force research paper, there are essentially four main factors which contribute to the spread of radical Islam throughout Britain. [6] The first of these is the liberal policies of the British Government towards immigration and asylum seekers.

Radical Islam in the UK is fuelled by what the Christian Monitor refers to as ‘fiery dissidents from the Middle East, Africa, and Asia [that] are drawn here by the generous asylum and immigration laws…’[7] The door to Britain was left wide open and for so long that many radicals went there understanding that the laws of the country would allow them to remain. Furthermore, the British authorities do not extradite terror suspects to countries with the death penalty. Abu Hamza not being deported to Yemen or Egypt is a fitting example of this policy. For years the immigration and asylum laws of Britain were lax to the degree that known radicals were allowed to settle there, however, these slack laws became even less stringent in 1997 when the Labour government brought to life the ‘International Human Rights Convention’ in the UK which was subsequently incorporated into the state’s laws. This law essentially stated that if an immigrant, legal or illegal as well as a potential asylum seeker, claims that their human rights will be violated upon deportation to their origin, then they will be granted asylum in Great Britain. A lofty idea, however, with one hand it blocks the extradition of many suspected terrorists and radicals, such as Abu Qatada to Jordan, and with the other it invites undesirables to settle in the country.

Furthermore, the benefits granted by the state to these people ensures that they can live in the country without even having to work. Provided with funds, a roof over their heads and the right of free speech, hundreds of radicals were drawn to Britain where they could devote all their time to laying the foundations of new and more radical networks. This is a huge factor behind why Britain came ‘to be a comfortable base for their Jihad against the West.’[8] Both Abu Qatada and Omar Bakri Mohammad were granted asylum in Britain and these two became leading figures in the radical movement there. In fact, in 2005 the British government disclosed that one quarter of all terror suspects arrested there since 2001 were asylum seekers.[9]

The second issue in why Britain came to be a terror hotspot is in the unique conditions of the British Muslim community itself. Britain has always been famed for its multiculturalism thanks to its island nature and geographical position as well its history as the world’s largest empire.  Whilst this multiculturalism is a thing to be proud of and brings many advantages with it, it has eroded anything that once resembled a British culture or unity. As such, this growing ‘diversity and apparent loss of a cohesive identity’ has resulted in a very fragmented society.[10] British multiculturalism has left a vacuum of identity and so many young Muslims, and other minorities of course, turn elsewhere for their inspiration. It is much like a recruitment facilitator for smooth talking radicals who offer young Muslims that which is missing, an identity and a source of belonging. Furthermore, the notion of multiculturalism in Britain has allowed Muslim communities to avoid integration and as such their communities are often very isolated.[11] This isolation, coupled with a high birth rate, has led to the creation of small Islamic focal points, or sub-state groups in which radicals can find support.[12] Additionally, the physical conditions of these areas adds to them being potential recruitment pool for radicals. The high birth rates amongst Muslim families are often an economic strain and this is a community with low qualifications, high unemployment and low paid jobs when someone does have work. In fact, according to a Microcon research paper on the radicalisation of British Muslims, ‘Muslims constitute some of the most deprived communities in the UK.’[13] Essentially, these disaffected and often impoverished groups can become soft targets for radicals on a recruitment drive.

Closely related to this is the fact that for a long time the British Government did very little to put a stop to those radicals who were abusing Britain’s liberal policies. Extremists were relatively free to stand on the streets advocating terrorism and spewing forth their hatred of the West. Abu Hamza was allowed to spread his hatred against the West from the 1990s right up until his arrest in 2004 of ‘soliciting murder, incitement to racial hatred’ and for being in possession of terrorists documents.[14]From his headquarters at Finsbury Park Mosque, Hamza said what he liked for years and whilst the government knew what was going on, because Hamza had a very close relationship with MI5, they did nothing. The shoe bomber Richard Reid, the bombers of Mike’s Place in Tel Aviv and three of the 7/7 bombers are all known to have frequented Hamza’s sermons. As such, it is clear what the government’s apathy led to. Furthermore, the blind eye that the government was showing to the radicals allowed for a rapid and unchecked spread of their ideology amongst the previously mentioned isolated communities. Huge amounts of radical literature, support and funding were pouring in from outside the country and the Dawa infrastructure was allowed to develop. Government apathy also allowed for the dissemination of radical literature to thousands and the King Fahd Mosque in Edinburgh highlights the danger of this. Situated next door to the University of Edinburgh, where the mosque has a kitchen which serves hundreds of people, it was found to be holding copies of a book which outlines when it is permissible to kill a non-Muslim and unobservant Muslims.[15] The London Central Mosque, hugely influential in the British Muslim community, and many others were found to be in possession of books ‘including passages supporting the stoning of adulterers and waging violent jihad…’ as well as ‘calling for the beheading of lapsed Muslims, ordering women to remain indoors and forbidding interfaith marriage…’[16] Many of these mosques are heavily involved with elements in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, both officially and unofficially. The literature pushes its readers to remain apart from mainstream society, that they must give themselves to Islam and pit their entire being against everything that is un-Islamic.[17] Ultimately it is Qutibist literature advocating violence and commitment to the Ummah above all else. These notions, amongst others, will be addressed shortly. In short, the British government’s unwillingness to stem this flow of radicalism in its infancy has led to a far greater and more resilient problem.

The last of the four factors to contribute to Britain’s vulnerability to radical Islam, is the existence of ‘safe havens’. For a long time prisons, universities and mosques were no-go zones for the government. The likelihood of a mosque being raided was so low that they could act as makeshift armouries, radical libraries, banks and meeting places. Prisons and universities were large recruiting grounds and this is especially true of universities where the student prayer rooms could function as venues for small group radical preaching. In fact, according to the USAF paper on radicals in Britain, four suicide bombers and thirteen convicted Islamic terror suspects were known to have been educated in British universities.[18]

Clearly the United Kingdom is suffering today from a long history of issues which facilitate the rise of radical Islam on their soil. On top of these structural issues, there are some more recent developments which have added to Britain’s place on the jihadist hit list – its participation in Iraq and Afghanistan. These serve as strong recruiting sergeants for jihadists and of course go some of the way to explaining why Britain is being so heavily targeted, but why it was so vulnerable has been explained and that is a different matter altogether. Arguably, one could say that the British government is losing its battle against extremism and the numbers are certainly not too encouraging. According to a report by the British government in the wake of the 7/7 bombings, up to three thousand British born and Britain based Muslims have passed through Al-Qaeda training camps.[19] The vast majority of these people have still not been identified or caught and so one can only assume that they remain in Britain today and are perhaps acting as a support network for operational cells. It goes on to state that around sixteen thousand people in Britain were potential terrorists and that there are hundreds prepared to carry out attacks inside of Britain. The domestic security services are stretched to breaking point by the number of people they are monitoring. Furthermore, the report added that more than ten thousand people in the UK have attended at least one radical conference. The numbers relating to the Muslim population in general are equally disturbing in some aspects. In 2001 a survey of British Muslims revealed that fifteen per cent of them supported the 9/11 attacks and in 2005, ten per cent of them said that the 7/7 bombings were justified.[20] These percentages translate into the hundreds of thousands.

If we look at the volume of terror plots in Britain since 2005 we see a country under attack, however, it is a country which is being assaulted from within. Five major plots have been foiled since 2006, however, every failed attack is still an attack and it is only because the security services are taking the threat so seriously that they have been as successful. According to MI5, over two thousand people are a direct threat to Britain, another two thousand are plotting and over two hundred networks are being watched.[21] Since the 7/7 bombings there has been the 21/7 plot, the London fertiliser plot, the transatlantic airlines plot and many others. All potentially major attacks on British territory, by British born or British based Muslims. The former Scotland Yard chief Lord Stevens simplified all these statistics by saying, ‘“There’s a sufficient number of people in this country willing to be Islamic terrorists that they don’t have to be drafted in from abroad.”’

There are a few groups operating within the UK which are suspected of spreading radical Islamic ideology and certainly many more that are active, but function away from the watchful eye of MI5. The group Tablighi Jamaat is one of the more prominent groups that are alleged to have ties with terrorism and radical ideology. In fact, it has been argued that the centre of this groups influence in the West is the Dewsbury Central Mosque in the UK and it is claimed that that Tablighi Jamaat mosques are the starting point on the path to violence, but not necessarily the defining influence in the decision to wage jihad.[22] Formed in India in 1926, the huge Sunni movement boasts some eighty million members[23] around the world and aims to reform the Muslim world via reverting to a more pure form of Islam. It is a Deobandi / Wahabist movement that preaches a need to practice Islam the way that Muhammad did and to live as he lived and is of the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Whilst not a terrorist organisation as such, the Deobandism that it preaches advocates separatism and these ‘anti-western, isolationist and fundamental characteristics also draws young Muslims who are disillusioned with modern society.’[24] Many Guantanamo Bay inmates have acknowledged their membership of Tablighi Jamaat mosques, but what is more is that Mohammed Sidique Khan, Shehzad Tanwar and Richard Reid are also suspected or known to have attended Tablighi mosques.[25] It has been labelled a starting point because its non-political nature and lack of large scale activism means that many ‘frustrated young zealots become fodder for the shadowy jihadi-groomers who infiltrate their ranks…’[26] Tablighi Jamaat is an example of the negative ideology and isolationist Islam which is the beginning of the road for many young British Muslims.

Another well known group which was connected to radicalism and Islamic terror is Al-Muhajiroun or The Emigrants in English. This group was founded by Sheikh Omar Bakri Mohammed in 1996, a Syrian who came to the UK in the 1980s, and he shared his leadership with another well known radical preacher Anjem Choudary. Al-Muhajiroun is well known for its co-hosting of the ‘Magnificent 19’ conference at the Finsbury Park Mosque which glorified the 9/11 hijackers, however, it did more than praise the attacks of others. Many former British students who went to fight in Chechnya and other theatres of jihad were Al-Muhajiroun graduates. Bakri Mohammed himself claimed to have sent hundreds of fighters on to wage jihad around the world.[27] Furthermore, many people who have preached radicalism and planned or carried out attacks have had links to the organisation and this clearly demonstrates its influence. The bombers of Mike’s Place in Tel Aviv were AM members as were some of the 7/7 bombers. People like Abu Izzadeen and Sulayman Keeler have been charged with inciting terrorism, Iftikar Ali was convicted of incitement to racial hatred and Mohammed Akurijee was fined for disseminating leaflets inciting anti-Semitism.[28] Furthermore, the five suspects in the fertiliser bomb plot were all members of AM and it was there that they ‘were transformed from moderate Muslims into angry radicals keen to fight abroad.’[29] All these people were connected to AM and the list goes on. The organisation was set up in the UK in 1996, but according to the BBC, by 2001 it had already ‘become a well-known radical group which sought to recruit in Muslim communities…’[30] The group worked closer with Abu Hamza’s Supporters of Shariah and as such the group often campaigned for the implementation of Islamic law. Furthermore, the group called for the creation of a new world Caliphate, spoke out against Jews and Hindus and according the International Institute for Counter Terrorism in Israel, was essentially a ‘component in the conveyor belt that leads to Jihadi terrorism.’[31] Al-Muhajiroun also endorsed the use of suicide bombings and violence in general in order to fight the West.

The group’s leader Bakri Mohammed was dubbed the ‘Tottenham Ayatollah’[32] and he openly admits that has group had two wings, one for Dawa and another for Jihad.[33] His preaching was very Salafist and his history with the Muslim Brotherhood is well known. A statement made by Mohammed sums up nicely his views and that of AM – he said his aim was ‘to see the “flag of Islam” flying over Downing Street.’[34] He is banned from re-entering the UK, but he continues to preach to his dedicated followers over the internet and he is calling them to jihad. In these sermons he refers to Britain as Dar ul-Harb, a war-zone, and he tells his listeners that ‘“ the jihad is halal for the Muslims wherever they are, the whole Ummah wherever they are.”’[35] He refers to the Ummah which means the Muslim world and as such he is essentially calling all Muslims to arms and giving them an identity above the state, above the temporal. It is something transcendental. As such, what Bakri Mohammed and AM have done, is create an opposition to the British state and spread the notion of loyalty to Islam above all else.

In 2004 Bakri Mohammed disbanded Al-Muhajiroun, anticipating its shutdown by the British government, and two main offshoot groups emerged amongst other smaller ones. Al-Ghurabaa and the Saviour Sect. These groups were essentially the children of AM and preached all the same things. They were Salafist, anti-state, virulently anti-Semitic, supported the creation of a new Islamic world and so on. The two newer groups were banned in Britain under the Terrorism Act of 2006, but the existence of any particular group makes little difference because the ideologies live on in the dozens of other groups which are fronts for Al-Muhajiroun and beyond. Bakri Mohammed spreads his hate from the internet and according the Times, ‘experts say that Al-Muhajiroun continues to exist, in effect, because its supporters simply set up new groups, some overtly and others covert, which are not yet proscribed.’[36] In short, the various groups are merely the tip of the iceberg and these networks have spread too deep and too wide to be rooted out in Britain. Furthermore, what of those who went to wage Jihad because of Al-Muhajiroun? Will they return to Britain? If so, will they continue their war there? These are issues that plague the security services and unfortunately there can be no clear answers.

It is impossible to discuss the spread of Islamic extremism in the UK without mentioning Abu Hamza al-Masri. Born in 1958 in Alexandria as Mustafa Kamel Mustafa, Abu Hamza left for the UK in 1979 a largely secular man with little knowledge of Islam.[37] He studied civil engineering and worked as a nightclub bouncer in London for a period of time, a far cry from the radical he would become. His interest in Islam began with the Islamic Revolution in Iran and developed quickly after working as a translator for the injured mujahedeen coming for medical treatment to Britain from fighting the soviets Afghanistan. He even met Sheikh Abdullah Azzam, the founder of the Afghan mujahedeen, a hugely influential figure who promoted the idea of jihad as the duty of every Muslim around the world. Hamza went on to Afghanistan where he lost his hands and eye from a landmine. In 1995 he went to Bosnia to support the Muslims there and when he returned he steadily rose to become a leading figure in the British Islamist scene. He began preaching and handing out leaflets calling for jihad against puppet Muslim regimes and those he claimed were corrupt. Eventually, Finsbury Park Mosque became his headquarters and stronghold where his fanatical worshippers almost prayed to him and an MI5 informer went so far as to say he was like ‘the Godfather’.[38] He was finally arrested in 2004 on fifteen charges. Six were for soliciting to murder, three were for stirring up racial hatred and one was for possessing material useful to terrorists.[39]

During his sermons, Hamza showed his followers videos depicting atrocities towards other Muslims in order to stir up hatred and an MI5 informer said that people would sell their passports and credit cards at the mosque[40] and one can only assume that these went to use clandestinely. He preached that Jews oppress the Muslim world, that they are hated because of their ‘“corruption on earth”’[41] and that the only way for Muslims to regain their dignity is by killing Jews. He even goes as far as to say that ‘“killing a Kafir (non-Muslim) for any reason, you can say it, it is ok – even if there is no reason for it.”’[42] He pushes the idea of Jihad again and again to his followers and many terrorists have had heard him speak at Finsbury Park. Again, Richard Reid had heard him, so did three of the 7/7 bombers and also Zacarias Moussaoui, a French Algerian and the only person to be convicted in connection with 9/11.[43] However, in the end Hamza was only prosecuted because the US began putting pressure on the UK and this actually shows the ease with which radicals could operate in Britain. A US government representative, Hugo Keith, says of Hamza, ‘“he advocated the defence of Islam through unlawful, violent and armed aggression…”’[44] Essentially he was part of a global jihadist network that aimed to spread Jihad across the whole world and he was very influential in the UK.

Another well known radical in Britain is Abu Qatada. A Palestinian/Jordanian, he has been described as Osama Bin Laden’s ambassador to Europe.[45] Tapes of his sermons were found in a flat in Hamburg used by some of those responsible for 9/11 and the Shoe Bomber is thought have sought his advice.[46] A key player in Europe for Al-Qaeda, he was described by a British government enquiry as being ‘“heavily involved, indeed was in the centre in the UK of terrorists activities associated with Al-Qaeda.’[47] Like Abu Hamza, he often made reference to the war between the West and Islam and in 2001 he was found to be in possession of funds that were meant to be going to the Mujahedeen in Chechnya, as well as having one hundred and eighty thousand pounds in his bank account, a large amount of money for an unemployed asylum seeker.[48]

Abu Hamza, Omar Bakri Mohammed, Abu Qatada, Al-Muhajiroun and Tablighi Jamaat are just a few examples of some of the people and groups active in the UK and the ideas that they disseminate. It is now necessary to look deeper at what they believe, what lies behind the words and what exactly the influencing ideology is.

A radical does not explicitly say what school of thought he comes from, nor do they label their ideology. As such, it is through examining their recorded words, their spoken beliefs and the messages that they intend to spread that the author has decided which forms of radical Islamic ideology best fits that which is being spread in the United Kingdom. A large part behind the ideology being spread in Britain is derived from Salafism. Salafist Islam focuses on the first three generations of Muslims as the prime example of how a Muslim today, and forevermore, should practice Islam. The first generation were the companions of the Prophet himself and then the next two generations after that. It essentially says that Islam was perfect, but it has become something else, something lower than it was, because of all the innovations that the modern world has wrought. The Taliban and Al-Qaeda are two well known examples of terrorist groups that draw their interpretation of Islam through a Salafist lens.[49] A UK Channel 4 television program ‘Dispatches’ used undercover cameras at a salafist mosque to record the hateful sermons against homosexuals, Jewish people and other non-Muslims that were given there. The ideology here of salafism fits very neatly into the words of the radicals mentioned previously. Furthermore, salafist jihadism, a term coined by Gilles Kepel, reads the Islamic texts in their most literal forms and as such, they view jihad against the infidel as something commanded and permitted. The sovereignty of Allah is what matters to them, not that of man and their laws. This is something we hear over and over again from the likes of Hamza and Bakri Mohammed, that man’s laws do not bind them for they are subject only to Allah.

Perhaps the largest influence behind the ideology being spread in the UK is that of Qutbism, a term derived from the developer of the ideas, Sayyid Qutb, the ‘father of modern fundamentalism.’[50] Qutb was born in Egypt in the 1950s and from his beginnings in the Muslim Brotherhood he went on to lay the foundations upon which future calls to Jihad would be based. Jihad essentially became synonymous with fighting the West to rid Islam of its influence and this is in large part thanks to Qutb.[51] The most significant part of Qutb’s message was that the West and Islam could not co-exist and therefore a war must determine who would rise and who would fall.[52] This was revolutionary and it laid the road for the radicals of today to walk along. He strongly believed in the Ummah, supported Shariah law and viewed the Jews as the enemies of Islam, all things which the radicals in Britain today are preaching. Another part of his revolutionary thinking, which has been taken up by many since his execution in 1966, is his belief in the need to fight both the near and the far enemy. The revolution was to start in the Islamic states and then spread to the rest of world. It failed to happen in the east, not from a lack of trying however, and so now the West is the focus of this battleground to rid Islam of all negative influences. An article by David von Drehle in the Smithsonian Magazine pinpoints exactly what is it is that Qutb’s ideology has led to today and why it is so dangerous, when he says,

Virtually the entire modern world, Qutb theorised, is jahilyya, that barbarous state   that existed before Muhammad. Only the strict, unchanging law of the prophet can redeem this uncivilised condition…And Muslim leaders allied with the West were no better than the crusaders themselves. Therefore, Qutb called all true Muslims to Jihad, or Holy War, against jahiliyaa – which is to say, against modernity, which America so powerfully represents.[53]

Qutb’s message has advanced the idea that jihad is to be used to conquer the world in the name of Islam to rid it of the proverbial darkness. It is the beginning of the call to global jihad in the name of Islam and it has spread to all corners of the world. Not only is that what he believed is necessary, but he calls it the individual duty of every Muslim to strive against everyone that did not live by the Qur’an.[54] This message is the backbone of the teachings of Abu Hamza, Abu Qatada, Al-Muhajiroun and many others. They preach a loyalty to the Ummah, a shunning of the laws of man and the need to fight jahiliyya everywhere, that is, anything un-Islamic. As such, Qutbism is the perhaps the largest driving influence behind the radical Islamic ideology that is spreading across Britain in the fashion that has been described above.

It is clear that Britain is at war from within and the distorted teachings of many radical groups and preachers are spreading fast amongst the UK’s disillusioned youth. The United Kingdom has a specific set of structural characteristics which allowed and is allowing for the rapid and deep dissemination of radical Islamic ideology. The most well known radical preachers and radical groups have been described in this paper, but there are many more and these examples were only chosen because of the clarity with which we can see their views and the influence that they wield. Abu Hamza, Abu Qatada and Omar Bakri are big names, but from a big world and as they leave the scene, younger and more covert radicals will take their place and most likely, many already have. However, as was seen in the case with Al-Muhajiroun, even when the face changes, the message stays the same. Furthermore, it has been explained how there is a stronger influence behind the words and messages of these people and their organisations. The driving force behind the radical ideology itself is deep rooted and even if we silence the radicals of today, others will rise and take up the message of the radicals of yesterday, such as that of Sayyid Qutb.

Bibliography

Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton

Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania

Drehle, David von, February 2006, A Lesson in Hate, Smithsonian Magazine Online, Available at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/presence-feb06.html

Finel, Bernard I, May 2007, The Causes of Violent Jihadism, The American Security Project, ASP, Washington DC

Harman, Danna, August 2002, Radical Islam finds unlikely haven in liberal Britain, The Christian Science Monitor, Available at http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0805/p01s03-wogi.html

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Newspaper Articles

BBC Online News, Analysis: The roots of Jihad, 16th October, 2001, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1603178.stm

BBC Online News, Covert preaching of banned cleric, 14th November, 2006, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6143632.stm

BBC Online News, More Muslims Radicalised in UK, 23rd June, 2006 Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/5111248.stm

BBC Online News, Profile: Omar Bakri Mohammad, 12th August, 2005, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4144892.stm

BBC Online News, Views of Radical Cleric Hamza, 7th February, 2006, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4671128.stm

BBC Online News, Cleric Abu Hamza Plotted Jihad, 17th May 2007, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6665209.stm

BBC Online News, Profile: Abu Qatada, 26th February, 2007, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4141594.stm

BBC Online News, Qatada’s key UK al-Qaeda role, 23rd March, 2004, Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/3562695.stm

The Journal Online News, Hate Literature Found at Edinburgh Mosque, 5th November, 2007, Available at http://www.journal-online.co.uk/article/2656-hate-literature-found-at-edinburgh-mosque

The Guardian Online News, Inside the Group accused by MI5 and FBI, 19th August, 2006 Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/aug/19/religion.terrorism

The Guardian Online News, Is this the Man Who Inspired Bin Laden?, 1st November, 2001, Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/nov/01/afghanistan.terrorism3

The Guardian Online New, What is Tablighi Jamaat?, 8th September, 2009, Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2009/sep/08/religion-islam-tablighi-jamaat

The Guardian Online News, Focus: Is the Islamist Group Al-Muhajiroun waiting to strike again?, 6th May, 2007, Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/may/06/terrorism.jamiedoward

The Guardian Online News, Focus: Britain’s Most Wanted, 5th May, 2002, Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/may/05/religion.terrorism

The Times Online, Britain’s Online Imam Declares War as he Calls Young Muslims to Jihad, 17 January, 2005, Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article413387.ece

The Times Online, In Depth: al-Muhajiroun, 11th March, 2009, Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article5889411.ece

The Times Online, Leaked No 10 Dossier Reveals Al-Qaeda’s British Recruits, 10th July, 2005, Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article542420.ece

The Times Online, Lessons in hate found at leading Mosques, 30th October, 2007, Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/faith/article2767252.ece

The Times Online, Multiculturalism has fanned the flames of Islamic extremism, 16th July, 2005, Available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/guest_contributors/article544443.ece

The Times Online, The Sayings of Omar Bakri Mohammad, 21st July, 2005, Available http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article546372.ece

The Indpendant Online, Al-Muhajirouns return presents test for terror laws, 17th June, 2009, Available at http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/al-muhajirouns-return-presents-test-for-terror-laws-1706922.html


[1] The Guardian Online News, Focus: Is the Islamist Group Al-Muhajiroun waiting to strike again?, 6th May, 2007

[2]BBC Online News, More Muslims Radicalised in UK, 23rd June, 2006

[3]Harman, Danna, August 2002, Radical Islam finds unlikely haven in liberal Britain, The Christian Science Monitor

[4]Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp. 5

[5]Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp.5

[6]Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp. 5

[7]Harman, Danna, August 2002, Radical Islam finds unlikely haven in liberal Britain, The Christian Science Monitor

[8]Harman, Danna, August 2002, Radical Islam finds unlikely haven in liberal Britain, The Christian Science Monitor

[9]Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp.5

[10] Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp. 4

[11] Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp.6

[12]Ibid.

[13] Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp 5

[14]Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp.7

[15]The Journal Online News, Hate Literature Found at Edinburgh Mosque, 5th November, 2007

[16]The Times Online, Lessons in hate found at leading Mosques, 30th October, 2007

[17]Ibid.

[18]Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp.7

[19]The Times Online, Leaked No 10 Dossier Reveals Al-Qaeda’s British Recruits, 10th July, 2005

[20] Donalds, Lt Col. Thomas, March 2007, Radical Islam in Britain: Implications for the war on terror, USAWC Strategy Research Project, Pennsylvania, pp.8

[21]Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp.7

[22]Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp.17

[23]The Guardian Online New, What is Tablighi Jamaat?, 8th September, 2009

[24]Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp.17

[25]Ibid.

[26]The Guardian Online New, What is Tablighi Jamaat?, 8th September, 2009

[27]The Indpendant Online, Al-Muhajirouns return presents test for terror laws, 17th June, 2009

[28]Shahar, Yael, July 2007, Islamic Radicals in the UK – A Double Edged Sword, International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, Herzliya

[29]The Guardian Online News, Focus: Is the Islamist Group Al-Muhajiroun waiting to strike again?, 6th May, 2007

[30]BBC Online News, Profile: Omar Bakri Mohammad, 12th August, 2005

[31]Shahar, Yael, July 2007, Islamic Radicals in the UK – A Double Edged Sword, International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, Herzliya

[32]The Times Online, In Depth: al-Muhajiroun, 11th March, 2009

[33]Shahar, Yael, July 2007, Islamic Radicals in the UK – A Double Edged Sword, International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, Herzliya

[34]The Indpendant Online, Al-Muhajirouns return presents test for terror laws, 17th June, 2009

[35]The Times Online, The Sayings of Omar Bakri Mohammad, 21st July, 2005

[36]The Times Online, In Depth: al-Muhajiroun, 11th March, 2009

[37]BBC Online News, Views of Radical Cleric Hamza, 7th February, 2006

[38]Ibid.

[39]Ibid.

[40]BBC Online News, Views of Radical Cleric Hamza, 7th February, 2006

[41]Ibid.

[42]Ibid.

[43]Ibid.

[44]BBC Online News, Cleric Abu Hamza Plotted Jihad, 17th May 2007

[45]The Guardian Online News, Focus: Britain’s Most Wanted, 5th May, 2002

[46]BBC Online News, Profile: Abu Qatada, 26th February, 2007

[47]BBC Online News, Qatada’s key UK al-Qaeda role, 23rd March, 2004

[48]BBC Online News, Profile: Abu Qatada, 26th February, 2007

[49]Briggs, Rachel and Birdwell, Jonathan, May 2009, Radicalisation Among Muslims in the UK, MICROCON, Brighton, pp. 18

[50]The Guardian Online News, Is this the Man Who Inspired Bin Laden?, 1st November, 2001

[51]BBC Online News, Analysis: The roots of Jihad, 16th October, 2001

[52]Ibid.

[53]Drehle, David von, February 2006, A Lesson in Hate, Smithsonian Magazine Online

[54]Finel, Bernard I, May 2007, The Causes of Violent Jihadism, The American Security Project, ASP, Washington DC

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